According to a large, observational study, consuming 2 to 3 daily cups of coffee is associated with a longer lifespan and reduced cardiovascular disease risk in comparison to abstaining from coffee. The results applied to instant, ground, as well as decaffeinated types of coffee.1✅ JOURNAL REFERENCE
Instant coffee, ground coffee, as well as decaffeinated coffee was linked to equivalent reductions in the number of cases of cardiovascular disease as well as death from cardiovascular disease or any cause of death.
There’s not much information on the effect of different types of coffee on survival and heart health. This research looked at the associations between coffee types and cases of arrhythmias, cardiovascular disease, and mortality making use of the UK Biobank data, which recruited individuals between 40 and 69 years old. Cardiovascular disease consisted of ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, and coronary heart disease.
The research consisted of 449,563 individuals free of arrhythmias or other cardiovascular diseases at the start of the study. The participants’ average age was 58 years and 55.3% of them were women. Individuals submitted a questionnaire that asked the number of cups of coffee they consumed every day and if they usually consumed instant coffee, ground coffee such as filtered coffee or cappuccino, or decaffeinated coffee.
They were then allocated into 6 daily consumption groups, consisting of no coffee, less than 1 cup, 1 cup, 2 to 3 cups, 4 to 5 cups, and over 5 cups every day. The typical type of coffee was instant in 44.1% of the individuals, ground coffee in 18.4%, and decaffeinated coffee in 15.2% of individuals. There were 22.4% non-coffee consumers who were used for comparing against.
Coffee consumers were compared to non-coffee consumers for the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, arrhythmias, and death after adjustments were made for sex, age, ethnicity, hypertension, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, smoking status, and alcohol and tea consumption. Outcome information was obtained from medical and death records. There was a 12.5-year follow-up on average.
A total of 27,809 individuals died during the follow-up duration. All coffee types were linked to reduced mortality from any cause. The highest reduction in risk was seen with 2 to 3 daily cups, which when compared to non-coffee consumption was linked to a 14%, 27%, and 11% reduced chance of death for decaffeinated coffee, ground coffee, and instant coffee, respectively.
43,173 individuals were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease during the follow-up period. All coffee subtypes were linked to a reduction in cardiovascular disease cases. The lowest risk was again seen with 2 to 3 daily cups, which compared to coffee abstinence was linked to a 6%, 20%, and 9% reduction in cardiovascular disease risk for decaffeinated coffee, ground coffee, and instant coffee, respectively.
Arrhythmias were diagnosed in 30,100 individuals throughout the follow-up duration. Instant coffee and ground coffee, but not decaffeinated coffee, was linked to a reduction in risk of arrhythmias which included atrial fibrillation. In comparison to non-coffee consumers, the lowest risks were seen with 2 to 3 daily cups for instant coffee and 4 to 5 daily cups for ground coffee, with a 12% and 17% reduction in risk, respectively.
For those coffee lovers that appreciate ground coffee, you may want check this informative article 10 Best Italian Coffee Brands