5. Coffee may help to reduce the risk of heart failure
According to an analysis of 3 large-scale heart disease studies, consuming 1 or more cups of coffee that are caffeinated may help to reduce the risk of heart failure. The researchers made use of machine learning to analyze data from the studies. Each study included a minimum follow-up of 10 years, and, collectively, information was provided from over 21,000 individuals.1✅ JOURNAL REFERENCE
To analyze the results of consuming caffeinated coffee, consumption was categorized as 0 cups daily, 1 cup daily, 2 cups daily, and 3 cups daily. Participants self-reported consumption of coffee over the 3 studies, and no standard units of measure were used.
Individuals who reported consuming 1 or more caffeinated cups of coffee experienced a reduction in long-term risk of heart failure in all 3 studies.
In the Cardiovascular Health and the Framingham Heart studies, the heart failure risk over decades was reduced by 5-to-12% per daily cup of coffee, in comparison to not consuming coffee.
In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, heart failure risk didn’t change from 0 to 1 daily cups of coffee, it was however approximately 30% lower in individuals with a coffee consumption of a minimum of 2 cups daily.
The consumption of coffee that was decaffeinated seemed to have an opposite effect on risk of heart failure, with a significant increase in risk found in the Framingham Heart Study. However; in the Cardiovascular Health Study there was no decrease or increase in heart failure risk related to the consumption of coffee that was decaffeinated.
When analyzed further, it was found that consumption of caffeine from any source seemed to be linked to a reduced risk of heart failure, and caffeine appeared to be partly responsible for the apparent benefit from consuming more coffee.